Evaluating the effects of ECON-ESG on load capacity factor in G7 countries

IŞIK C., Ongan S., Islam H., Sharif A., Balsalobre-Lorente D.

Journal of Environmental Management, vol.360, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 360
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2024.121177
  • Journal Name: Journal of Environmental Management
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Environment Index, Geobase, Greenfile, Index Islamicus, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Economic factors, Environmental factors, ESG factors, Governance factors, LCF, Social factors
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


For the first time, this study introduces the ECON-ESG quadruple, developed by Işıksik et al. (2024a), by adding the economy (ECON) dimension to the classical ESG (environment, social, governance) triad. Based on this new concept, it explores the impact of ECON-ESG factors on the Load Capacity Factor (LCF) in G7. The impact of ECON-ESG factors on LCF is vital because sustainability through these factors plays a critical role in a sustainable environment with LCF. CS-ARDL model finds that while governance factors (GOVNF) positively affect LCF, economic factors (ECONF) have negative effects. Environmental factors (ENVF) and social factors (SOCF) do not affect LCF. These findings can be interpreted as follows: (i) Negative effects of ECONF on LCF can be interpreted as high productivity levels in G7 leading to high resource consumption, exceeding biocapacity. (ii) In G7 with high-income levels, increased consumption may lead to overconsumption of natural resources and exceeding biocapacity. (iii) High technological progress in G7 can sometimes paradoxically lead to greater resource consumption rather than encouraging more efficient resource use, increasing an ecological footprint. The positive effects of GOVNF on LCF can be interpreted as follows: (iv) High and quality governance practices and policies in G7 can increase biocapacity. (vi) Under good governance, governments and environmental organizations can positively impact LCF by raising public awareness of environmental issues and enabling society to use natural resources more sustainably. Therefore, policymakers should harmonize economic policies through ECONF and governance policies through social factors (GOVNF), which contradict each other in LCF. Additionally, the effect of the single composite form ECON-ESG introduced and proposed in this study on LCF is found to be negative. This requires policymakers and firms to re-evaluate their sustainability one more time from a holistic perspective, including economic factors, as done in this study.