ENERGY SOURCES PART A-RECOVERY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS, vol.33, no.16, pp.1504-1513, 2011 (SCI-Expanded)
The characterization of apricot pulp char obtained from steam pyrolysis was studied. The char was prepared by pyrolyzing apricot pulp temperatures ranging from 300 to 700 degrees C under steam atmospheres. The chemical composition of char was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The surface area of the char was measured with the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, and surface morphology was obtained with scanning electron microscopy. The char yield in pyrolysis decreased rapidly with an increase in temperature from 39.1% at 300 degrees C to 18.9% at 550 degrees C. The surface area of the char increased with temperature to a maximum of 332 m(2)/g at 550 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that the pyrolysis led to the formation of melt, liquid phase, vesicles, precipitates of inorganic salts, and surface etching. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies showed a gradual decrease in the amounts of OH and CH3 with increasing temperature. Both the H/C and O/C ratios of the char decreased with an increase in temperature.