The genus Teucrium L., belonging to the family Lamiaceae, is divided in ten sections including Polium (Mill.) Schreb. In Cyprus, this section is represented by five endemic species: T. micropodioides, T. cyprium, T. karpasiticum, T. kyreniae and T. salaminium. Essential oils of the aerial parts of these species were separately obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Chemical compositions of the obtained oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS, simultaneously. The essential oil yields ranged between 0.03-0.75 (v/w). The major components of the essential oil of T. kyreniae were ??-caryophyllene (21.2%), (??)-nerolidol (10.9%), carvone (8.8%) and ??-humulene (7.9%). T. salaminium essential oil was dominated by ??-caryophyllene (15.2%), caryophyllene oxide (13.9%), germacrene D (11.6%) and bicyclogermacrene (10.0%). Major components of the oil of T. cyprium were ??-pinene (35.4%), ??-pinene (10.6%) and spathulenol (8.4%). Major compounds of the oils of T. micropodioides samples, collected from two different locations, were (1) limonene (47.0%), ??-pinene (16.0%) and ??-caryophyllene (6.9%), (2) ??-cadinene (11.2%), 1-epi-cubenol (7.8%), cubebol (4.7%), cubenol (4.1%), respectively. Main constituents of the essential oil of T. karpasiticum were limonene (43.9%), ??-pinene (16.0%), ??-bisabolol oxide A (7.8%), ??-caryophyllene (5.5%) and ??-pinene (4.6%). The section Polium, is considered a complex and the diversity of oil compositions from the species belonging to this section provided additional proof to this consideration.