In this study, the exergetic, exergoeconomic, and sustainability aspects of piston-prop aircraft engines are comprehensively reviewed. These analysis and assessment tools are applied to a four-cylinder, spark ignition, naturally aspirated and air-cooled piston-prop aircraft engine in the landing and takeoff (LTO) phases of flight operations. LTO consists of four parts: takeoff, climb out, approach, and taxi. The results of energy analysis indicate that takeoff is a phase requiring high power with a maximum work rate of 111.90 kW. Maximum fuel energy and exergy rates are calculated to be 444.30 kW and 476.51 kW, respectively. The minimum total loss is found in the taxi phase, while maximum energy and exergy efficiency values are 26.76% and 24.95% in the climb out phase, respectively. Based on the results of the cost analysis, the taxi has the maximum exergy destruction cost rate with 23.41 $/h at a fixed production and 2.96 $/h at a fixed fuel. Maximum sustainability index (SI) is found to be 1.332 at the climb out phase.