The Cross-Cultural Invariance of the Servant Leadership Survey: A Comparative Study across Eight Countries

Creative Commons License

Van Dierendonck D., Sousa M., Gunnarsdottir S., Bobbio A., Hakanen J., Verdorfer A. P., ...More

ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES, vol.7, no.2, 2017 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 7 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/admsci7020008
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus
  • Keywords: servant leadership, cross-cultural, measurement equivalence, EQUIVALENCE
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


This paper tests and confirms the cross-cultural equivalence of the Servant Leadership Survey (SLS) in eight countries and languages: The Netherlands, Portugal, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Spain, Turkey and Finland. A composite sample consisting of 5201 respondents from eight countries that all filled out the SLS was used. A three-step approach was adopted to test configural invariance, measurement equivalence, and structural equivalence. For the full 30-item version of the SLS, configural invariance and partial measurement equivalence were confirmed. Implications of these results for the use of the SLS within cross-cultural studies are discussed.