TURKISH ONLINE JOURNAL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION, vol.9, no.1, pp.180-192, 2008 (ESCI)
Videoconferencing systems combine face-to-face and mediated interactions in distance education. We extend the use of a Social Presence measure to on-site (face-to-face) learners and distant learners. Comparison between physically present and distant located learners did not indicate significant differences in social presence. Also results indicate that the predicted social presence score for distance instruction is slightly lower than for the on-site instruction for high nonverbal behavior while the reverse is true of low non verbal behaviors. Predicted social presence for face to face instruction is quite higher than for the distance instruction for the high verbal behaviors while the reverse is true of low verbal behaviors. It means that students` social presence is predicted to be higher in the face to face setting comparing to the videoconferencing course in both models. Additionally, when both nonverbal and verbal behaviors increase, the predicted social presence is facilitated, controlling for the grouping variable. In other words, instructors` nonverbal and verbal communication skills enhance learners` social presence in either environment.