DRUG AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY, vol.37, no.1, pp.1-7, 2014 (SCI-Expanded)
Dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism prevent cancer development and induce apoptosis. One of the most promising compounds that blocks both of these pathways is licofelone. We questioned whether licofelone affects the survival and/or promotes apoptosis of H-ras transformed rat embryonic fibroblast (5RP7) cells in vitro. Using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and colchicine as positive controls, we determined cell viability with 3-3-(4,5-D-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, thyazolyl blue (MTT), apoptosis with flow cytometry and activity of caspase enzyme with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Compared to the control, all used six doses (10, 50, 100, 150, 250 and 250 mu M) of 5-FU, colchicine and licofelone, which were cytotoxic and reduced the number of H-Ras transformed 5RP7 cells by as much as 78, 72 and 92%, respectively. In addition, we found that 150, 200 and 250 mu M of licofelone induced apoptosis and necrosis of H-Ras transformed 5RP7 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Each three tested drugs at 250 mu M also increased the level of caspase-3 enzyme up to 5-fold. Although colchicine was effective in inducing early apoptosis, licofelone had much more capacity to induce the total of early plus late apoptosis by approximately 96% in cells after 48 hours. The present study reveals the possibility that licofelone posseses strong dose-and time-dependent anticancer and apoptotic properties on carcinogenic fibroblasts.