A Predictive Analytics Infrastructure to Support a Trustworthy Early Warning System

Creative Commons License

Baneres D., Guerrero-Roldan A. E., Rodriguez-Gonzalez M. E., Karadeniz A.

APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL, vol.11, no.13, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 13
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/app11135781
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: predictive analytics, artificial intelligence, trustworthy early warning system, standards and guidelines, software engineering in e-learning, MICROSERVICES
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


Learning analytics is quickly evolving. Old fashioned dashboards with descriptive information and trends about what happened in the past are slightly substituted by new dashboards with forecasting information and predicting relevant outcomes about learning. Artificial intelligence is aiding this revolution. The accessibility to computational resources has increased, and specific tools and packages for integrating artificial intelligence techniques leverage such new analytical tools. However, it is crucial to develop trustworthy systems, especially in education where skepticism about their application is due to the risk of teachers' replacement. However, artificial intelligence systems should be seen as companions to empower teachers during the teaching and learning process. During the past years, the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya has advanced developing a data mart where all data about learners and campus utilization are stored for research purposes. The extensive collection of these educational data has been used to build a trustworthy early warning system whose infrastructure is introduced in this paper. The infrastructure supports such a trustworthy system built with artificial intelligence procedures to detect at-risk learners early on in order to help them to pass the course. To assess the system's trustworthiness, we carried out an evaluation on the basis of the seven requirements of the European Assessment List for trustworthy artificial intelligence (ALTAI) guidelines that recognize an artificial intelligence system as a trustworthy one. Results show that it is feasible to build a trustworthy system wherein all seven ALTAI requirements are considered at once from the very beginning during the design phase.