Enhanced angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells via THP-1-derived M2c-like macrophages and treatment with proteasome inhibitors 'bortezomib and ixazomib'


APMIS, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/apm.13426
  • Journal Name: APMIS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


The leading cause of cancer-related death is lung cancer, with metastasis being the most common cause of death. To elucidate the role of macrophages in lung cancer and angiogenesis processes, we established an in vitro co-culture model of A549 or HUVEC with THP-1 cells that polarized to M2c macrophages with hydrocortisone. The proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and ixazomib were investigated for their effects on proliferation, invasion, migration, metastasis, and angiogenesis pathways. The effects of bortezomib and ixazomib on gene expression in gene panels, including crucial genes related to angiogenesis and proteasomes, were investigated after the co-culture model to determine these effects at the molecular level. In conclusion, bortezomib and ixazomib showed antiproliferative effects in both cells, as well as in M2c macrophage co-culture. M2c macrophages also increased invasion in A549 cells and both invasion and migration in HUVEC. mRNA expression upregulation, specifically in the NFKB and VEGF genes, supported the metastatic and angiogenic effects found in A549 and HUVEC with M2c macrophage co-culture. Additionally, bortezomib inhibited the VEGFB pathway in HUVEC and NFKB1 in A549 cells. The significant findings obtained as a result of this study will provide information regarding angiogenesis induced by M2 macrophages.