Characterization of an urban landfill soil by using physicochemical analysis and solid phase microextraction (SPME)-GC/MS

Banar M., Ozkan A., Vardar C.

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, vol.127, no.1-3, pp.337-351, 2007 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 127 Issue: 1-3
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10661-006-9284-8
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.337-351
  • Keywords: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, heavy metals, landfill, municipal solid waste, organic compounds, soil pollution, solid phase microextraction, SPSS, CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS-SPECTROMETRY
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


We have aimed at characterizing top soil samples taken in-situ from five different locations of the unregulated dumping site in Eskisehir/Turkey for a period of six months. The study is the first attempt in the city and in Turkey, regarding particularly the SPME (Solid Phase Microextraction Technique) analysis method utilized. A comprehensive research has been conducted to produce critical soil data to be used for indicating current risks as well as the urgency of rehabilitating the site and establishing a sanitary landfill in the site. Conventional physicochemical analytical methods and SPME technique were used to analyze the samples. Physicochemical analyses were performed for determining the pH, total dried matter, volatile matter, total nitrogen, phosphorus, macro elements and heavy metals. Meteorological data were also recorded for the same period. SPSS.10.0 statistical program was used to determine the correlation between meteorological data and physicochemical analysis results. Mean values were used in the correlation analyses. These data indicated that the air temperature and precipitation have significant effects on soil characteristics. SPME, coupled with GC/MS, was used to identify eighty six volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds contained in soil samples. The samples were extracted by headspace SPME with heating (delta HS-SPME). SPME analyses were conducted using a commercially available polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber having a film thickness of 65 mu m (Supelco) as a capture medium. The experimentally optimized headspace sampling conditions were arranged (15 min. at 50 degrees C) before a 30 min. sampling period.