Assessment of the toxicity of different antiretroviral drugs and their combinations on Sertoli and Leydig cells


BAYSAL M., KARADUMAN A. B., KORKUT ÇELİKATEŞ B., ATLI EKLİOĞLU Ö., ILGIN S.

DRUG AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/01480545.2024.2336506
  • Journal Name: DRUG AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

The human immunodeficiency virus continues to pose a significant global public health challenge, affecting millions of individuals. The current treatment strategy has incorporated the utilization of combinations of antiretroviral drugs. The administration of these drugs is associated with many deleterious consequences on several physiological systems, notably the reproductive system. This study aimed to assess the toxic effects of abacavir sulfate, ritonavir, nevirapine, and zidovudine, as well as their combinations, on TM3 Leydig and TM4 Sertoli cells. The cell viability was gauged using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was assessed via the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) test, and DNA damage was determined using the comet assay. Results indicated cytotoxic effects at low drug concentrations, both individually and combined. The administration of drugs, individually and in combination, resulted in the production of ROS and caused damage to the DNA at the tested concentrations. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the administration of antiretroviral drugs can lead to testicular toxicity by promoting the generation of ROS and DNA damage. Furthermore, it should be noted that the toxicity of antiretroviral drug combinations was shown to be higher compared to that of individual drugs.