Agastache urticifolia (Benth.) Kuntze (horsemint), Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow), and Perideridia gairdneri (Hook. & Arn.) Mathias (yampah) are native, culturally important plants that grow in the subalpine meadows of Montana. Analysis of the composition of essential oils extracted from these plants showed that the main components of essential oils obtained from flowers and leaves of A. urticifolia (designated as AUF/AUL) were menthone (2.7/25.7%), isomenthone (2.6/29.1%), pulegone (78.9/28.8%), and limonene (4.2/6.2%), whereas essential oils obtained from the inflorescence of A. millefolium (designated as AMI) were high in & alpha;-thujone (17.1%) and & beta;-thujone (14.9%), 1,8-cineole (17.0%), camphor (13.0%), sabinene (7.0%), guaia-3,9-dien-11-ol (3.2%), and terpinen-4-ol (2.5%). Essential oils obtained from the inflorescence of P. gairdneri (designated as PGI) contained high amounts of dillapiole (30.3%), p-cymen-8-ol (14.1%), terpinolene (12.0%), 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-cyclohex-2-enone (6.2%), and & gamma;-terpinene (2.4%). Evaluation of their immunomodulatory activity demonstrated that essential oils extracted from all of these plants could activate human neutrophils with varying efficacy. Analysis of individual components showed that dillapiole activated human neutrophil intracellular Ca2+ flux ([Ca2+](i)) (EC50 = 19.3 & PLUSMN; 1.4 & mu;M), while & alpha;-thujone, & beta;-thujone, menthone, isomenthone, and pulegone were inactive. Since dillapiole activated neutrophils, we also evaluated if it was able to down-regulate neutrophil responses to subsequent agonist activation and found that pretreatment with dillapiole inhibited neutrophil activation by the chemoattractant fMLF (IC50 = 34.3 & PLUSMN; 2.1 & mu;M). Pretreatment with P. gairdneri essential oil or dillapiole also inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis induced by fMLF, suggesting these treatments could down-regulate human neutrophil responses to inflammatory chemoattractants. Thus, dillapiole may be a novel modulator of human neutrophil function.