CYTOTECHNOLOGY, vol.70, no.6, pp.1537-1550, 2018 (SCI-Expanded)
Cotton, a staple fiber that grows around the seeds of the cotton plants (Gossypium), is produced throughout the world, and its by products, such as cotton fibers, cotton-seed oil, and cottonseed proteins, have a variety of applications. Cotton-seed contains gossypol, a natural phenol compound. (+/-)-Gossypol is a yellowish polyphenol that is derived from different parts of the cotton plant and contains potent anticancer properties. Tumor growth and metastasis are mainly related to angiogenesis; therefore, anti-angiogenic therapy targets the new blood vessels that provide oxygen and nutrients to actively proliferating tumor cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-angiogenic potential of (+/-)-gossypol in vitro. (+/-)-Gossypol has anti-proliferative effects on cancer cell lines; however, its anti-angiogenic effects on normal cells have not been studied. Anti-proliferative activities of gossypol assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, anti-angiogenic activities using tube formation assay, and cell migration inhibition capability using a wound-healing assay on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were revealed. (+/-)-Gossypol displayed the following potent anti-angiogenic activities in vitro: it inhibited the cell viability of HUVECs, it inhibited the migration of HUVECs, and disrupted endothelial tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the anti-angiogenic effects of (+/-)-gossypol were investigated in ovo in a model using a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Decreases in capillary density were assessed and scored. (+/-)-Gossypol showed dose-dependent anti-angiogenic effects on CAM. These findings suggest that (+/-)-gossypol can be used as a new anti-angiogenic agent.