Measuring Destination Competitiveness: An Application of the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (2007)

Kayar Ç. H., KOZAK N.

JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY MARKETING & MANAGEMENT, vol.19, no.3, pp.203-216, 2010 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 19 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/19368621003591319
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.203-216
  • Keywords: Destination competitiveness, tourism competitiveness, Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


This article evaluates 13 key factors that affect destination competitiveness and compares the competitiveness levels of EU countries with those of Turkey. The article also focuses on detecting the more or less effective determinants of destination competitiveness. Secondary data, comprised of the World Economic Forum's Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index, were included in data analysis. Using this index, 28 countries were clustered according to their competitiveness scores. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling techniques were employed for an analysis of the findings. Results highlight that 3 clusters can be formed from the selected countries, and the factors which most affect the competitiveness of these countries are air transport infrastructure, natural and cultural resources, ground transport infrastructure, and health and hygiene. Results also indicate that Turkey receives the highest score only in price competitiveness; the image of Turkey as a low- priced country still exists in the international tourism market.