Chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) (CS/PVA) nanofibers with a diameter in the range of 60-70nm were prepared by electrospinning method. The effect of CS/PVA blend ratio and process parameters on the morphology and diameter of nanofibers was investigated by SEM analysis. The FT-IR and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of nanofibers revealed that intermolecular hydrogen bonds were formed between CS and PVA. Weight fractions of polymers in the electrospun nonwoven fibers mats were determined by thermal gravimetric analysis and were close to ratio of polymers in the blend solution. The silver ion (Ag+)-incorporated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) particles, determined as about 70nm in diameter, were synthesized by wet chemical method. These nanoparticles were added to the CS/PVA blend solution in order to increase antibacterial activity of electrospun fibers. It was observed that the synthesized nanofibers including Ag+-incorporated HAP nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial efficiency against Escherichia coli. The antibacterial electrospun CS/PVA nanofibers are the potential candidate for biomedical applications, because they provide an efficient way to fulfill new requirements for material properties.