Electrochemical antimony removal from accumulator acid: Results from removal trials in laboratory cells

Bergmann M. E. H., Koparal A. S.

JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, vol.196, pp.59-65, 2011 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 196
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.08.073
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.59-65
  • Keywords: Antimony, Electrochemical deposition, Accumulator acid, Antimony removal, SB, AVAILABILITY, VOLTAMMETRY, RECOVERY, WATER, SOIL
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


Regeneration of spent accumulator acid could be an alternative process for crystallization, neutralisation and disposal. Therefore, for the first time in a study of the possibilities of electrochemical removal of antimony and accumulator acid regeneration on a laboratory scale, two synthetic and several real systems containing sulfuric acid of concentrations ranging between 28% and 36%, and antimony species were tested. Discontinuous electrochemical reactors with anion exchange membranes were successfully used in these experiments, which were conducted at a temperature of 35 degrees C. Removal of antimony using cells that were not divided by a separator, however, was not possible. In selected experiments, by varying the electrode material, type of electrolyte, and cell current, the concentration of antimony could be reduced from the range of 5 ppm to 0.15 ppm. This resulted in current efficiencies between 0.00002% and 0.001%, and in specific electroenergy demands between 100 Wh L-1 and 2000 Wh L-1. In other experiments on substances with antimony contents up to 3500 mg L-1, the current efficiencies obtained were more than a thousandfold higher. In contrast to the formally high relative energy consumption parameters absolute demand parameters are relatively small and favour the electrochemical method in small scale application. Besides plate electrodes, 3D-cathodes were used. Copper- and graphite cathodes produced the best results. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.