The goal of this research study was to determine the relationship between the airway anatomy of university trumpet players and their performance skills. Following reliability studies, three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography scans of 66 university Caucasian trumpet players were analyzed. The most constricted area of the airway (MCA), airway dimensions (length and volume) of the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, maxillary sinuses, prevertebral soft tissue thickness, and neck circumference were measured. The same players played a quantitative skills test to measure their technical performance skills (flexibility; single, double, triple and flutter tonguing; endurance; and high and low range). The results of the skills test and airway measurements were compared (Spearman's correlation) accepting a 5% significance level for all comparisons. Results: The nasal cavity volume significantly correlated with flexibility, double and triple tonguing and flutter tonguing in high range. Measurements of oropharynx volume, total airway volume, and most constricted area significantly correlated with low range skill. High range skill significantly correlated with multiple measurements: soft tissue thickness AA, soft tissue thickness CV 2ia, airway length, and neck circumference. Airway length also significantly correlated with flutter tonguing in high range and endurance skills. Although the significance levels were all high, the correlations were weak in many cases. Conclusion: Various aspects of the airway anatomy were related to technical skills of trumpet performance. Further studies need to be conducted for better understanding of these relationships involving airway anatomy and trumpet playing.