Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Considering the severe side effects, toxicity and high costs of chemotherapeutics used in cancer treatment, there is a need for more economical and natural treatment methods such as essential oils. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of Canarium commune (Elemi) essential oil (EO) and nanoparticles. Elemi EO is analysed by GC-FID/MS. The antiproliferative effect of Elemi EO and prepared nanoparticles on human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and their effect on normal fibroblast cells (CCD-19Lu) were determined by the MTT test. The levels of TAS, TOS, CYCS, CASP3, TNF-α and IL-6 parameters of the experimental groups were determined using specific ELISA. BAX and Bcl-2 genes were studied with qRT-PCR to investigate the different ways that cancer cells undergo apoptosis. Limonene (53.7%), a-phellandrene (14.5%) and elemol (10.1%) were the major components of Elemi EO. 24-Hour IC50 values in the cells were measured for Elemi EO; A549: 1199 μg/mL, CCD-19Lu: 37.181 μg/mL. TAS and TOS values were found to be higher in cancer cells than in normal cells, and it was found that cancerous cells were dragged into stress and that cancer cells were directed to apoptosis. BAX genes stimulation supported the results. It was determined that Elemi EO and nanoparticles showed anticancer activity without damaging normal cells. Based on these promising results, potential drug candidate Elemi EO loaded nanoparticles may be cell-specific targeted, oral use possible, new generation nanoparticular drugs.