Characterization of lead glazed potteries from Smyrna (Izmir/Turkey) using multiple analytical techniques; Part II: Body

Ozcatal M., Yaygingol M., Issi A., Kara A., Turan S., Okyar F., ...More

CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, vol.40, no.1, pp.2153-2160, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 40 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2013.07.132
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.2153-2160
  • Keywords: Archaeometrical characterization, Lead glazed pottery, Raman spectra of minerals, Izmir, PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY, ANCIENT-POTTERY, IDENTIFICATION, CLAYS, TRANSFORMATIONS, SPECTROSCOPY, TEMPERATURE, PIGMENTS
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


Lead glazed pottery was one of the most important ceramic ware groups for the Late Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman cultures in Anatolia. They were produced in different places in Anatolia such as Tarsus, Iznik, Smyrna, Clazomenae, Ephesus and Perge. This study represents the detailed study of 18 lead glazed potteries sherds excavated in Ayasuluk region (Smyrna) regarding the production technology. Different characterization techniques were applied: wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) was performed for determination of the chemical content of the bodies, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman techniques were performed for mineralogical characterization of the sherds body, whereas scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with the combination of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) was performed for microstructural and microchemical characteristics of pottery sherds. Principle component analysis of the obtained WDXRF results of the potsherds bodies show that most of the sherds (except two) belong to the same group of potteries. XRD results showed that calcium-poor clays were used for the production of the bodies with firing temperature in a range from 600 to 1000 degrees C. Raman spectra provided information on the presence of minerals in bodies: carbon, graphite, albite, anatase, rutile, apatite, magnetite and several origin markers such as spessartine, phlogopite, hornblende, olivine and sphalerite. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.