© 2017 Elsevier GmbHIntroduction The main objective of this study is modelling pharmacy students’ acquisition of knowledge-based behavior towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by using attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavior and intention. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study designed for pharmacy students’ acquiring knowledge-based behavior towards CAM in the light of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) via structural equation modelling (SEM). Methods Two-sample independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) are used to determine significant differences between groups. SEM is used for modelling the pharmacy students’ acquiring knowledge-based behavior. Results Developed Acquiring Knowledge-Based Behavior towards CAM (AKBC) model provides good fit for the dataset, explaining 56% of the variation in the acquiring knowledge intention of pharmacy students (I), and explaining 32% of the variation within acquiring knowledge-based behavior of pharmacy students (B). According to AKBC model, attitude toward CAM, subjective norm about CAM, and perceived behavior control related to CAM have a booster effect on the acquisition of knowledge intention of pharmacy students towards CAM. In addition, acquisition of knowledge intention of pharmacy students towards CAM practices has a booster effect on the acquiring knowledge-based behavior towards CAM. Conclusions This study contributes to the literature by developing a structural model for acquiring knowledge-based behavior towards CAM. A variation of the AKBC model is available for modelling the behaviors of practicing pharmacists or academicians.