Chemical Characterization and Biological Activity of the Mastic Gum Essential Oils of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia from Turkey

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MOLECULES, vol.25, no.9, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 25 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/molecules25092136
  • Journal Name: MOLECULES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Anacardiaceae, terpenoids, alpha-pinene, myrcene, beta-pinene, GC-MS, chiral-GC, bioactivity, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial, Mediterranean fruit fly, MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT-FLY, MATRIX FORMING MATERIAL, ELECTROANTENNOGRAM RESPONSES, CERATITIS-CAPITATA, IN-VITRO, VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS, CHEWING GUM, APOPTOSIS, TEPHRITIDAE, ATTRACTION
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


The essential oils (EOs) were isolated by hydrodistillation from wild and cultivated Pistacia lentiscus L. var. chia-mastic gum tree (Anacardiaceae) from two natural habitats, namely from Cesme-Uzunkoy (1) and Mordogan (2), and one cultivated source, Cesme-Germiyan (3), in Izmir, Turkey. This comparative study evaluated the chemical composition and biological activity of mastic gum essential oils (MGEOs). For this purpose, MGEOs 1-3 were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and chiral GC for alpha-pinene. Laboratory assays were conducted to assess for potential in vitro cytotoxicity (multiple in vitro cancer cell lines), antimicrobial properties (five bacterial species and yeast), anti-inflammatory activity (inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS), and the attraction of Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly, medfly), respectively. Chemical analysis indicated that MGEOs 1 and 2 were rich in alpha-pinene (56.2% and 51.9%), myrcene (20.1% and 18.6%), and beta-pinene (2.7% and 3.1%), respectively; whereas MGEO-3 was characterized by a high level of alpha-pinene (70.8%), followed by beta-pinene (5.7%) and myrcene (2.5%). Chiral GC analyses showed that concentration ratios between (-)/(+)-alpha-pinene and (-)-alpha-pinene/myrcene allowed for differentiation between wild and cultivated MGEO sources. In biological assays, MGEOs 1-3 did not exhibit significant antimicrobial effects against the pathogens evaluated and were not strong attractants of male medflies; however, all three MGEOs displayed a dose-dependent inhibition of iNOS, and MGEOs 1 and 2 exhibited selective in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cells. These results suggest that wild-type mastic gum oils from Cesme and Mordogan (MGEOs 1 and 2) are potential sources of beneficial products and warrant further investigation.