In this paper, 31 mostly endemic and locally distributed Turkish Centaurea taxa belonging to Centaurea and Phalolepis sections were examined in terms of their karyomorphology. The basic chromosome number for all of the studied species was concurringly determined as 9(x = 9) for both sections, excluding C. hierapolitana. We also determined tetraploid and hexaploid species in spite of many species having diploid chromosome numbers. Twelve chromosome counts are reported for the first time and most of the karyotyping analyses are described for the first time via the KAMERAM program. The karyotypes had a predominance of metacentric (m) chromosomes. However, in the karyotyping of six taxa, submetacentric (sm) chromosomes were dominant. Five quantitative asymmetric indices were used to evaluate karyological features of the species. A meaningful dendrogram was carried out to assess the karyotype-symmetry conditions and describe the karyotyping relationships between different taxa.