Activated Carbons From Grape Seeds By Chemical Activation With Potassium Carbonate And Potassium Hydroxide

Okman I., Karagoz S., Tay T., ERDEM M.

APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, vol.293, pp.138-142, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 293
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.12.117
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.138-142
  • Keywords: Grape seeds, Activated carbon, Chemical activation, POROUS STRUCTURE, ADSORPTION, REMOVAL, SHELL, RESIDUES, SURFACE
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


Activated carbons were produced from grape seed using either potassium carbonate (K2CO3) or potassium hydroxide (KOH). The carbonization experiments were accomplished at 600 and 800 degrees C. The effects of the experimental conditions (i.e., type of activation reagents, reagent concentrations, and carbonization temperatures) on the yields and the properties of these activated carbons were analyzed under identical conditions. An increase in the temperature at the same concentrations for both K2CO3 and KOH led to a decrease in the yields of the activated carbons. The lowest activated carbon yields were obtained at 800 degrees C at the highest reagent concentration (100 wt%) for both K2CO3 and KOH. The activated carbon with the highest surface area of 1238 m(2) g(-1) was obtained at 800 degrees C in K2CO3 concentration of 50 wt% while KOH produced the activated carbon with the highest surface area of 1222 m(2)g(-1) in a concentration of 25wt% at 800 degrees C. The obtained activated carbons were mainly microporous. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.