Design and synthesis of novel dithiazole carboxylic acid Derivatives: In vivo and in silico investigation of their Anti-Inflammatory and analgesic effects

TURAN YÜCEL N., Asfour A. A. R., EVREN A. E., YAZICI C., KANDEMİR Ü., Özkay Ü. D., ...More

Bioorganic Chemistry, vol.144, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 144
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2024.107120
  • Journal Name: Bioorganic Chemistry
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, EMBASE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


Inflammation is a complex set of interactions that can occur in tissues as the body's defensive response to infections, trauma, allergens, or toxic compounds. Therefore, in almost all diseases, it can be observed because of primary or secondary reasons. Since it is important to control and even eliminate the symptoms of inflammation in the treatment of many diseases, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs are always needed in the clinic. Therefore, the discovery of new anti-inflammatory/analgesic drugs with increased effectiveness and safer side effect profiles is among the popular topics of medicinal chemistry. Therefore, in this study, in order to synthesize and diversify new molecules, we focused on the N,N-dithiazole carboxylic acid core and linked it with the chalcone functional group. The final eleven molecules were analyzed via HRMS, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR. The antinociceptive effects of the test compounds were examined by tail-clip, hot-plate, and formalin methods in mice, while their anti-inflammatory activities were investigated by carrageenan-induced inflammation tests in rats. The motor activities of the experimental animals were evaluated using an activity-meter device. Obtained findings revealed that none of the test compounds (10 mg/kg) were effective in the tail-clip and hot-plate tests. However, compounds 4b, 4c, 4f, 4 h, and 4 k in the serial shortened the paw-licking times of mice in the late phase of the formalin test indicating that these compounds had peripherally-mediated antinociceptive effects. The same compounds, moreover, showed potent anti-inflammatory effects by significantly reducing paw edema of rats in the inflammation tests. To provide an approach to pharmacological findings regarding possible mechanisms of action, the binding modes of the most active compounds were investigated by in silico approaches. The results of molecular docking studies indicated that the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the compounds might be related to the inhibition of both COX-1 and COX-2 isoenzymes. Findings obtained from in silico studies showed that 4 k, which was chosen as a model for its analogs in the series, forms strong bindings to the basic residues (Arg120, Tyr355), side pocket loop area and deep hydrophobic regions of the enzyme. Moreover, results of the molecular dynamics simulation studies revealed that ligand-COX enzyme complexes are quite stable. Obtained results of in vivo and in silico studies are in harmony, and all together point out that compounds 4b, 4c, 4f, 4 h, and 4 k have significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities with good ADME profiles. The potential of the derivatives, whose pharmacological activities were revealed for the first time in this study, as anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug candidates, needs to be evaluated through comprehensive clinical studies.