Fanatic or Ultras: Tribune Culture in Turkey


COMMUNICATION & SPORT, 2023 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/21674795231172657
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, ComAbstracts, SportDiscus
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


The fandom and the tribune both generate their own cultures. Fandom can be positioned in a variety of contexts while establishing this culture. In this sense, hooliganism, ultra-groups, and fandom all gain popularity. This study assessed tribune culture in Turkey. The study further performed ethnographic and netnographic observations in addition to the tribune culture and its facets. During the ethnographic observance phase September-December 2019 period, eight and two home and away matches were watched, respectively, with Bursaspor spectator groups, including Texas, Marathon, and Uni-crocodile (unitimsah). The notes conveyed here served as the basis for the first stage of the study. The second stage comprised the netnographic method to review the official Twitter accounts of the fan groups between September and December 2019. During this period, @teksasorg, @maratonplatform, and @unitimsah accounts shared 146, 30, and 230 tweets, respectively. These profiles appeared to create a fan culture that was similar both in real life and the digital environment. As a result, the study concluded that the structure of the sports fan organizations in Turkey is ultra-featured.