Four clays (two bentonites and two kaolinites) from Turkey were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (DTA/TG-DSC) and surface area measurement techniques. Mineralogically bentonite samples were characterized low concentration of montmorillonite and high level of impurities. Both kaolinite samples mainly contained kaolinite and quartz as major mineral. TG-DTA curves of all clay samples were measured in the temperature range 30-1200 A degrees C. The total % weight losses for the bentonite samples (B1 and B2) and the kaolinite samples (K1 and K2) were determined as 14.50, 13.42, 5.55 and 11.85%, respectively. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) analyses of samples were carried out by heating the samples from 30 to 550 A degrees C. The immersion heats of clay samples were measured using with a Calvet-type C-80 calorimeter. The higher exothermic Q(imm) values were determined for bentonite samples compared to kaolinite samples.