Reconstructing Iron Age Community Dynamics in Eskisehir Province, Central Turkey

Grave P., Kealhofer L., Marsh B., Sivas T., SİVAS H.

JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL METHOD AND THEORY, vol.19, no.3, pp.377-406, 2012 (AHCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 19 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10816-011-9119-y
  • Journal Indexes: Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.377-406
  • Keywords: Large-scale survey, Ceramics, Neutron activation analysis, Anatolian Iron Age, Turkey, CENTRAL ANATOLIA, SAMPLE-SIZE, SOCIETIES, DIVERSITY, ECONOMY, GORDION
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


Current understanding of the Iron Age polity of Phrygia in Central Anatolia is primarily based on excavations and survey in the region of the Phrygian capital of Gordion. In order to expand our knowledge of the Phrygian polity, we assess the scale and nature of Iron Age communities in the western (EskiAYehir) region of Phrygia. We address the challenge of interpreting ceramics derived from large-scale archaeological survey by utilizing Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) of ceramics from 12 sites across the region collected by the EskiAYehir archaeological survey project as well as an excavated assemblage from Aar Hoyuk. While the uniformity in ceramic technology and styles suggest the region is part of the larger Phrygian community, NAA results reveal that (a) ceramic production was regionally highly localized with limited evidence of standardization during the Iron Age and (b) based on evidence of community interaction it is possible to establish a partial chronological sequence of development. These results have implications not only for understanding the internal dynamics within the Phrygian core but also for developing a methodology for comparing ancient polities using commensurate units of interacting communities. The present study is part of the larger Anatolian Iron Age Ceramics project (