The genus Centaurea L. is one of the largest and important genera of Asteraceae family. Centaurea species have been widely used as herbal remedies in folk medicine for their antidandruff, antidiarrheic, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, choleretic, diuretic, digestive, stomachic, astringent, antipyretic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial properties. Centaurea baseri Kose & Alan is a recently described local endemic species in Turkey and this is the first study on the chemical composition and bioactivity of its hydrodistilled essential oil and the crude extract. According to chromatospectral analysis, hexadecanoic acid (42.3%), nonacosane (8.2%), and heptacosane (8.0%) were the main compounds of the essential oil, while 16 compounds were determined in the MeOH extract using LC/MS. Furthermore, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic effects of the essential oil and the extract were evaluated in comparison with the standard agents. The extract showed strong antifungal effect against Candida utilis at the concentration of 60 g/ml (MIC) where the EO showed growth inhibition at the concentration of 47.00 g/ml (MIC) against pathogen Bacillus cereus. Both the essential oil and the extract did not show any selective antioxidant properties. The extract showed remarkably selective cytotoxic properties against MCF-7, PANC-1, A549, and C6 glioma cells.