14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED), Valencia, Spain, 2 - 04 March 2020, pp.2060-2066
Coaching, a concept that has enjoyed widespread use in different fields, like psychology, health, and business, is often highlighted in discussions on inclusive education environments. Coaching is applied to bring out the best in an individual and can be used to address many issues, including management techniques, communication, presentation techniques, career development, performance improvement, motivation, crisis management, and stress management, depending on the situation and needs of the individual(s). In reviewing the coaching types presented in the literature, it was found that the most common are performance coaching, executive coaching, career coaching, life/personnel coaching, business coaching, skills coaching, and entrepreneurship coaching. Within the field of inclusive education, coaching involving evidence-based practices has proven to be quite effective and is frequently used in the different type of coaching. The coaching sessions in the field of inclusive education are carried out in one-to-one and small group formats within the children's natural settings, like home, school, and classroom. Moreover, there are a variety of ways in which coaching can be delivered, including live sessions in the teacher's classroom, via the Internet, or as a combination of these two, and it can involve feedback delivered immediately after an observation or at a later time. This study aimed to introduce the coaching practices used in inclusive environments, to inform educators, families, and relevant experts about the types of coaching used in inclusive environments by reviewing the current literature on this subject, and to put forward suggestions by examining the different components of coaching. To this end, this study applied an informative approach. Developmental/performance coaching and life coaching are frequently observed in educational environments. Yet, in inclusive environments, teacher coaching, peer coaching, and parent coaching in particular are more preferred, with peer coaching, which functions as an alternative to teacher coaching for children with special needs, having an important role to play. Families can benefit from parent coaching in making effective decisions during the developmental process of their children. Studies have shown that teachers prefer the face-to-face coaching format. However, web-based coaching practices, which are more budget and time-friendly, should by necessity be included in the process considering the wide-spread use of these tools in today's technological age. In this regard, it can be suggested to compare the effectiveness of the coaching presented to teachers in face-to-face formats versus in web-based formats. Group experimental studies have reported that the duration of coaching practices ranges between nine weeks and 4 to 5 months. However, despite the many studies in the literature reporting on the effectiveness of coaching practices, it is noteworthy that no detailed information has been provided on the key components of coaching practices. Therefore, in the studies conducted on coaching, attention needs to be given to identifying, in detail, the significant components of the coaching process. Lastly, greater awareness should be raised about the use of coaching, an evidence-based practice, in inclusive environments in order to build its popularity.