Ten imidazole derivatives were tested for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 both in the absence and presence of metabolic activation by the microsomal fraction S9 mix. In a general manner, derivatives tested exhibited a greater mutagenic activity in the TA100 strain comparing to the responses in TA 98. In the standard plate incorporation assay, 8 of these substances (80%) were found to be mutagenic for at least one of the two strains in the presence or absence of metabolic activation. Two compounds showed positive results in TA98 and 6 compounds were also mutagenic in TA100 without S9. In the presence of S9 mix, all of the 10 substances were non-mutagenic in TA98, whereas 4 compounds were positive in TA100. The results suggested the mutagenic potentials of the imidazole derivatives particularly inducing the reversion of base-pair substitutions. According to the structure-activity relationships phenyl groups in position 2 with different substituents can confer the mutagenic activity of the tested compounds. Methyl groups in different positions of these phenyl substituents can cause different types of mutations. This mutagenic effect is observed more clearly when the phenyl group is inhibited with a nitro group.