Ákermanite type Ca2MgSi2O7 phosphors activated with different types of rare earths have been synthesized through a solid state reaction method under weak reducing atmosphere and/or open atmosphere. The phase properties of the samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction and the effects of rare earth ions (Eu2+/3+, Dy3+, Ce3+, Sm3+ and Pr/4+) and calcination atmosphere on the luminescence properties of the Ca2MgSi2O7 host are investigated by using a photoluminescence spectrometer. The comparative results of SEM and laser particle size analysis reveal that the relatively regular morphology, smaller particle size and narrow size distribution can be achieved for the phosphor synthesized by the solid state reaction method including dry-milling below 170 mesh. In the photoluminescence investigations, all the activator ions show different emissions for Ca2MgSi2O7 host lattice. The results show that the luminescence properties of rare earth ions activated Ca2MgSi2O7 host are also highly dependent on the calcination conditions.