Development of a multipurpose tile body: Phase and microstructural development

Kara A., Ozer F., Kayaci K., Ozer P.

JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, vol.26, no.16, pp.3769-3782, 2006 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 26 Issue: 16
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2005.11.009
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.3769-3782
  • Keywords: firing, electron microscopy, thermal expansion, tiles, PORCELAIN STONEWARE, FLY-ASH, MECHANICAL STRENGTH, FLUX, KAOLINITE, GEHLENITE
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, an attempt was made in order to develop a multipurpose tile body using a single formulation. In order to achieve this, several body recipes were prepared using mainly local raw materials with clearly defined physical and chemical properties at different sieve residues and single fast fired under industrial conditions in the first part of the study. In the second part, the most suitable formulations with the corresponding sieve residues were determined and further fired at different peak temperatures under laboratory conditions in order to establish their vitrification ranges and optimum firing temperatures. The tested peak firing temperatures were varied at 20 degrees C intervals from 1120 to 1200 degrees C for multipurpose wall tile body and from 1140 to 1220 degrees C for multipurpose floor tile body. The physical and thermal properties of the fired bodies such as water absorption, linear firing shrinkage, bulk density and linear thermal expansion coefficient were measured. The vitrification behaviour of the multipurpose bodies was also evaluated using a double-beam optical non-contact dilatometer. Furthermore, the fired bodies were subjected to colour measurements. Particular consideration was given to the phase and microstructural evolution of the developed tile bodies. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyse the phases formed before and after firing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was further employed in order to observe the microstructural and microchemical characteristics of the fired bodies with respect to peak firing temperature. The preliminary experimental results showed that it was possible to obtain a multipurpose body with the properties in accordance with ISO-EN 10545. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.