Environmental pollution and COVID-19 outbreak: insights from Germany

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Bilal B., Bashir M. F., Benghoul M., Numan U., Shakoor A., Komal B., ...More

AIR QUALITY ATMOSPHERE AND HEALTH, vol.13, no.11, pp.1385-1394, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11869-020-00893-9
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Geobase, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.1385-1394
  • Keywords: COVID-19, Germany, Environmental pollution, AIR-POLLUTION, ASSOCIATION, CITIES, MODELS, SO2
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


The impact of environmental pollutants and climate indicators on the outbreak of COVID-19 has gained considerable attention in the recent literature. However, specific investigation of industrial economies like Germany is not available. This provides us motivation to examine the association between environmental pollutants, climate indicators and the COVID-19 cases, recoveries, and deaths in Germany using daily data from February 24, 2020, to July 02, 2020. The correlation analysis and wavelet transform coherence (WTC) approach are the analytical tools, which are used to explore the association between variables included in the study. Our findings indicate that PM2.5, O-3, and NO(2)have a significant relationship with the outbreak of COVID-19. In addition, temperature is the only significant climate indicator which has significant correlation with the spread of COVID-19. Finally, PM10, humidity, and environmental quality index have a significant relationship only with the active cases from COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings conclude that Germany's successful response to COVID-19 is attributed to environmental legislation and the medical care system, which oversaw significant overhaul after the SARS and MERS outbreaks. The current study implicates that other industrial economies, especially European economies, that are still facing COVID-19 outbreak can follow the German model for pandemic response.