The ultrastructural changes on capillaries of the dermis in diabetic and benfluorex-vitamin C treated diabetic rats have been investigated. Three groups of 21 Wistar albino rats were used in the examination: control, diabetes, and benfluorex-vitamin C treated diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin. The streptozotocin-induced group was treated for 21 days with vitamin C and benfluorex, of which antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects were experimentally proved. Samples taken from the skin of rats' legs were examined under transmission electron microscopy. Swollen endothelial cells, narrowed capillary lumens, a thickened basement membrane, and fusion of mitochondrial cristae in the capillaries of diabetic rat dermis were seen. In the benfluorex-vitamin C treated group, contrary to the diabetic group, neither signs of degeneration in endothelial cells nor a significant difference with the control group with regard to capillary structure were observed. Amelioration in capillaries appears to be due to benfluorex and vitamin C treatment in diabetes. (C) 2009 International Federation for Cell Biology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.