Estimating the connection of information technology, foreign direct investment, trade, renewable energy and economic progress in Pakistan: evidence from ARDL approach and cointegrating regression analysis

Rehman A., Ma H., Ahmad M., Ozturk I., IŞIK C.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol.28, no.36, pp.50623-50635, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28 Issue: 36
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-021-14303-9
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.50623-50635
  • Keywords: Information technology, Economic growth, Foreign investment, Trade, Energy, ARDL, GROWTH, ICT, GLOBALIZATION, DYNAMICS, IMPACTS, WORLD
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


The present study aims to investigate the effects of information and communication technology, foreign direct investment, trade and renewable energy use with GDP growth in Pakistan using time series data ranging from 1985 to 2017. Stationarity of data was verified by using unit root tests including ADF and P-P, while an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model was used to check the dynamic association amid prescribed variables with long- and short-run analysis. Furthermore, cointegrating regression analysis with FMOLS, DOLS and CCR was applied to validate the variables causality. The outcomes during long-run analysis show that ICTE, trade and renewable energy have constructive linkage to GDP growth, while foreign direct investment has adverse influence to GDP growth in Pakistan. Similarly, the outcomes from cointegrating regression technique exposed that all variables including foreign direct investment, ICTE and trade have positive and constructive association with GDP growth except renewable energy that causes the adverse association to GDP growth in Pakistan. On the basis of outcomes, we will discuss the policy recommendations.