The evaluation of the anti-cancer activity of ixazomib on Caco2 colon solid tumor cells, comparison with bortezomib

Engur S., DİKMEN M.

ACTA CLINICA BELGICA, vol.72, no.6, pp.391-398, 2017 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 72 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/17843286.2017.1302623
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.391-398
  • Keywords: Proteasome inhibitor, MLN9708, bortezomib, Caco2, apoptosis, ixazomib, MLN2238, PROTEASOME INHIBITOR BORTEZOMIB, INDUCED APOPTOSIS, UP-REGULATION, CANCER CELLS, IN-VITRO, C-MYC, CARCINOMA, PS-341, TARGET, TRAIL
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


Proteasome inhibition has recently emerged as a clinically effective anticancer therapeutic approach. The first proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib (Velcade, PS-341), and new proteasome inhibitors including ixazomib have become more important in the development of targeted cancer therapies. Under physiological conditions, MLN9708 (ixazomib citrate), the stable citrate ester drug substance, hydrolyzes rapidly to MLN2238 (ixazomib), the biologically active boronic acid. It is a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, similar to the well-known proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, which is currently being investigated in phase 3 trials as a treatment for multiple Myeloma. Despite the proven efficacy of these drugs in hematologic malignancies, clinical activity is limited to solid tumors such as colon adenocarcinoma. This study is the first to investigate and compare the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of MLN2238 and bortezomib on human colon adenocarcinoma Caco2 cells. The antiproliferative effects of MLN2238 and bortezomib were determined using WST-1; apoptotic effects of this drug were determined by caspase-3 and a mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1) activity assay. Expression levels associated with proteasome inhibition and apoptosis of NF-kappa B and c-myc mRNA were evaluated by RT-PCR. At 24 and 48 h, MLN2238 showed significant time-and concentration-dependent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on Caco2 cells. Depending on increasing mitochondrial depolarization and caspase-3 activation, MLN2238 induced apoptosis at level similar to that of bortezomib. In addition, MLN2238 downregulated NF-kappa B and c-myc mRNA expression levels. For the first time, MLN2238 was shown to induce antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on human colon adenocarcinoma cells that are comparable with those of bortezomib; these in vitro data in Caco2 cells support the development of MLN2238 for colon cancer.