Satellite images are commonly used for defining thermal urban environment and heat islands in urban areas. The objective of this study was to analyze and evaluate thermal environment of Uzundere-Erzurum using satellite images provided by the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor on board Landsat 5 satellite. In respect to land use and urban surface features, spatial characterization of thermal urban environment was defined. In order to define the link between surface emissivity, land surface temperatures (LST), and urban surface characteristics more effectively, the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) database for Uzundere was also used. Based on the Landsat satellite images, different land cover categories are defined, and the alterations of heat islands are identified according to these categories. The minimum and maximum surface temperatures were obtained from open spaces, non-vegetated bare rocky areas (- 1.8 and 29.1 degrees C, respectively). The surface temperature in the water areas was much better (7.5 and 21.9 degrees C) and followed by green areas surface temperature (- 0.9 and 28 degrees C). Surface temperatures should be considered energy-focused planning.