Until recently, current knowledge on the distribution of anostracan fauna in Turkey has been rather limited and mostly relied upon old records dating back to the 1970s. Field investigations initiated during the last few years have revealed the presence of at least five species new to science and have contributed new data on the distribution and status of anostracans in Turkey. Ten Chirocephalus species are currently listed for Turkey, belonging to the "diaphanus" and "bairdi" groups, respectively. Representatives of other genera include Branchinecta ferox Milne-Edwards, 1840 and Branchinecta orientalis Sars, 1901 (Branchinectidae), Branchinella spinosa Milne-Edwards, 1840 (Thamnocephalidae) and Branchipus laevicornis Daday, 1912 (Branchipodidae). Interestingly, the latter has been found to coexist with Branchinecta orientalis, a case never recorded previously. Some old references also list Branchinectella media Schmankewitsch, 1873, Chirocephalus reiseri Marcus, 1913, and Streptocephalus auritus Koch, 1841, but these data need to be verified.