In the present work, the flower volatiles and seed fatty acids compositions of three populations (P-I, P-II, P-III) of Rosa iliensis were investigated for the first time. R. iliensis is a rare, endangered, narrow-endemic species growing in floodplains of the Ili and Sharyn rivers of Almaty region. The flower volatiles have been investigated with the tandem of MSD-SPME and GC-MS/FID techniques. The seed lipids were extracted from the ripe fruits with microextraction technique. The flower volatiles of R. iliensis three populations were characterized by the abundance of oxygenated monoterpenes with benzaldehyde (13.3-38.7 %) and citronellol (2.6-8.8 %) as the major constituents. There were detected significant differences in floral scents between the populations. The flowers of P-I (from Sharyn River) contain sesquiterpene gamma-elemene (8.8%), the flowers of P-II (upper reaches of the Ili River) were rich in alpha-gurjunene (12.8%), while flowers of P-III (lower reaches of the Ili River) contained any sesquiterpenes. Seven fatty acids were determined in the seeds and unsaturated acids were found to be dominant for studied populations. Linoleic (43.0-51.0%), alpha-linolenic (26.5-28.1%), and oleic (12.0-16.1%) acids were detected as the major constituents. The present study shows that R. iliensis species is rich source of valuable volatiles and fatty acids.