Quality of Education and Technological Readiness: Bootstrap Panel Causality Analysis for Northern European Countries

Kirikkaleli D., ERTUĞRUL H. M., Sari A., Ozun A., Kiral H.

Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, vol.65, no.2, pp.276-287, 2021 (SSCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 65 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/00313831.2019.1705892
  • Journal Name: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, IBZ Online, Child Development & Adolescent Studies, EBSCO Education Source, Education Abstracts, Educational research abstracts (ERA), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts, MLA - Modern Language Association Database, Psycinfo, Social services abstracts, Sociological abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.276-287
  • Keywords: bootstrap panel causality, Nordic educational model, Quality of education, technological readiness
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: No


The purpose of this study is to determine the direction of causality between the quality of education and technological development for the selected Northern European countries over the period 2006–2017. To this end, we employ the bootstrap panel causality test. The findings of our study indicate that the quality of education leads to changes in technological readiness in the long run. Interestingly, the reverse direction causal effect is not detected. These findings provide further evidence on–other–positive impacts of the Nordic educational system and are likely to stimulate the interest of policymakers in this field.