Examining transposed makams in Turkish music through machine learning: classification of Rengidil-Neveser and Ruhnevaz-Buselik pieces

Karaosmanoglu M. K., BERKMAN E., Berkman M. I.

JOURNAL OF NEW MUSIC RESEARCH, vol.51, no.4-5, pp.346-360, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 51 Issue: 4-5
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/09298215.2023.2240756
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Periodicals Index Online, Music Index, Music Periodicals Database, RILM Abstracts of Music Literature
  • Page Numbers: pp.346-360
  • Keywords: classification, machine learning, Makam analysis, shad-makam, Turkish music
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


The concept of shad-makam is explored through an analysis of pieces in makams Rengidil and Ruhnevaz, to see whether these two are distinct structures or transposition of their antecedents; Neveser and Buselik. The analysis was performed using ML algorithms on features extracted from symbolic Turkish music data. The standard tuning and the shad-makam pieces transposed to the same pitch with original makam were examined. Falsely classified pieces were analysed qualitatively, to explain quantitative results. We determined that Rengidil is a transposed form of Neveser and should not be considered as a distinct makam. In contrast, Ruhnevaz is different from Buselik.