12th Annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI), Sevilla, Spain, 11 - 13 November 2019, pp.1011-1017
The advent of online technologies resulted in a capacity increase in open and distance learning (ODL) and enabled learning at scale; however, this increase has been followed by a decrease in learner motivation and high dropout rates within the system. In order to increase learner motivation and decrease the side effects of learning at scale, gamification, using gameful designs in non-game settings, is offered as a solution. To this end, the aim of this study is to investigate the distribution of the Hexad gamification user types and their relations with intrinsic motivation within the context of ODL. The study applied a correlational research design using quantitative research methodology, and the study sample included 2292 distance learners. The findings showed that the most common user types are Philanthropists, Achievers, and Free Spirits, followed by Socializers and Players, with Disruptors being the least common user types. Furthermore, positive correlations were found between intrinsic motivation and five of the user types (Socializers, Achievers, Free Spirits, Philanthropists and Players), whereas there was a negative relationship between intrinsic motivation and Disruptors.