Interregional social development differences and regional social development determinants in Turkey


GEOJOURNAL, vol.87, no.3, pp.2209-2225, 2022 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 87 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10708-020-10368-0
  • Journal Name: GEOJOURNAL
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, IBZ Online, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, ABI/INFORM, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, Geobase, Hospitality & Tourism Complete, Hospitality & Tourism Index, Index Islamicus, Linguistic Bibliography, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.2209-2225
  • Keywords: Regional social development, Public expenditures, Terrorist attacks, Population density, Panel data analysis, ECONOMIC-GROWTH, CROSS-SECTION, DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES, INCREASING RETURNS, CAPITAL FORMATION, HEALTH, PRODUCTIVITY, INVESTMENT, POLICIES, DENSITY
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, the relationship is investigated between the regional human development index and public investment expenditures, terrorist attacks and population density for 12 regions of Turkey. For each region, the Human Development Index method of calculation which is prepared by the United Nations Development Program is used to calculate the regional human development index. In this study, the model is developed to analyze the relation between variables, estimated by the common correlated effects (CCE) approach. For the analyses, firstly all the stationarity of series is investigated by the cross-sectionally augmented dickey fuller test which is considered to have cross-sectional dependence. After the stationarity test, the existence of a cointegration relation between variables, is tested with the Durbin-H test, and the findings obtained from the test showed the presence of a cointegration relation among the series. After confirming a cointegration relation, long-term parameters are estimated by the CCE model. Findings from the CCE test showed that the effect of the variables on the regional human development index was not statistically significant in the general model. On the other hand, regional results showed that the effects of variables were statistically significant in some regions and that these effects vary according to regions. With this study, it is aimed to identify the differences in social development in Turkey and the determinants of regional development. The findings and recommendations are also considered to be beneficial for countries in similar social and economic situation with Turkey.