Determination of land surface temperature and urban heat island effects with remote sensing capabilities: the case of Kayseri, Türkiye

Çetin M., Kavlak M. O., Kurkcuoglu M. A. S., Ozturk G. B., Cabuk S. N., Cabuk A.

NATURAL HAZARDS, vol.120, no.6, pp.5509-5536, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 120 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11069-024-06431-5
  • Journal Name: NATURAL HAZARDS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Environment Index, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, PAIS International, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.5509-5536
  • Keywords: Land surface temperature, Normalized difference built-up index, Normalized difference vegetation index, Urban heat island, Urban planning
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: No


Kayseri, a densely urbanized province in Turkiye, grapples with pressing challenges of air pollution and limited green spaces, accentuating the need for strategic urban planning. This study, utilizing Landsat 8 and Landsat 9 satellite imagery, investigates the evolution of land surface temperatures (LST) and urban heat island (UHI) effects in key districts-Kocasinan, Melikgazi, Talas, and Hacilar-between 2013 and 2022. This research has been complemented with an analysis of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Normalized Difference Built-Up Index (NDBI), exploring correlations among the LST, UHI, NDVI, and NDBI changes. The findings indicate that a significant portion (65% and 88%) of the study area remained unchanged with respect to the NDVI and NDBI differences. This research's findings reveal that a substantial portion (65% and 88%) of the study area exhibited consistency in the NDVI and NDBI. Noteworthy increases in the NDVI were observed in 20% of the region, while only 4% exhibited higher NDBI. Strikingly, the UHI displayed strong negative correlations with the NDVI and robust positive correlations with the NDBI. The LST changes demonstrated a reduced temperature range, from 21 to 51 degrees C in 2013, to 18 to 40 degrees C in 2022. Localized environmental factors, notably at the National Garden site, showcased the most significant temperature variations. Notably, the UHI exhibited strong negative correlations with the NDVI and strong positive correlations with the NDBI. The study's results emphasize the interplay among the NDBI, LST, and UHI and an inverse relationship with the NDVI and NDBI, LST, and UHI. These findings hold implications for urban planning and policymaking, particularly in the context of resilient and sustainable land use planning and the UHI mitigation. This research underscores the intricate interplay among the NDBI, LST, and UHI, highlighting an inverse relationship with the NDVI. These findings hold crucial implications for resilient and sustainable urban planning, particularly in mitigating the UHI effects. Despite limited vacant spaces in Kayseri, geospatial techniques for identifying potential green spaces can facilitate swift UHI mitigation measures. Acknowledging Kayseri's complex dynamics, future research should delve into the UHI responses to urban morphology and design, extending this methodology to analyze the UHI effects in other Turkish cities. This research contributes to a broader understanding of UHI dynamics and sustainable urban planning practices, offering valuable insights for policymakers, urban planners, and researchers alike.