COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR, vol.55, pp.616-625, 2016 (SSCI)
Cyberloafing is among the problematic tech-trends in contemporary work-based and educational settings. The current study administered an existing three-factor scale to three samples. The factor structure was not confirmed among high school teachers (n: 33), high school students (n: 479) and undergraduates (n: 86). A new and more comprehensive scale to address contemporary cyberloafing behaviors during lectures was developed through literature review, expert panels and observations. Data from undergraduate students (n: 471) were used for construct validation with an exploratory factor analysis (EFA), which revealed a five-factor structure and explained 70.44% of the total variance. Factors were sharing, shopping, real-time updating, accessing online content and gaming/gambling. The scale was administered to another undergraduate student sample (n: 215) and a social networker student group (n: 515). The structure was validated in these new samples through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). The scale and current findings are expected to facilitate further cyberloafing research in educational settings. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.