A new Centaurea L. (Asteraceae) species from Turkey is described and illustrated. Centaurea dursunbeyensis Uysal & Kose exists on limestone crevices in ancient Dursunbey Forest (Balikesir) in western Anatolia. It belongs to C. sect. Phalolepis (Cass.) DC.. and taxonomically its closest relatives are C. aphrodisea Boiss. and C. cadmea Boiss. Diagnostic morphological characters from very similar taxa are provided, and a key is provided that includes related species of sect. Phalolepis from Turkey. The geographical distribution of the new species and species of other related taxa of the same section are mapped. The chromosome number of C. dursunbeyensis, 2n = 36, counted in root tips, is also reported and illustrated.