Background: After 40 years since establishment of Child-Pugh staging, 14 years since establishment of MELD scoring system, and 25 years since establishment of King's College Criteria, there is still a search for more accurate systems for determination of prognosis in patients with acute liver failure - cirrhosis and prioritization for receipt of a liver transplant - prediction of post transplant mortality. Butrylcholinesterase is an enzyme which is synthesized in the liver. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical utility of butrylcholinesterase as a discriminatory and prognostic factor in chronic liver disease patients. Methods: Intergroup diversity for butrylcholinesterase activity was investigated in sixty cirrhotic, 20 chronic hepatitis patients, and 20 healthy subjects. Correlations between butrylcholinesterase activity and Child-Pugh classification and MELD scoring systems were examined. Results: In addition to the statistically significant decrease in butrylcholinesterase activity among Child-Pugh A/B/C stages, the decrease in butrylcholinesterase activity was also statistically significant in control vs. Child-Pugh stage A and chronic hepatitis vs. Child Pugh stage A groups. A statistically significant correlation was determined between butrylcholinesterase activity and Child Pugh/MELD scores. Conclusions: Serum butrylcholinesterase activity might be helpful for discrimination of chronic hepatitis from cirrhosis after determination of reliable cut-off levels and dependent on the reductions of serum levels in acute liver failure and cirrhosis. It might be a useful tool for prioritization of liver transplantation.