A nexus of linear and non-linear relationships between tourism demand, renewable energy consumption, and economic growth: Theory and evidence

IŞIK C., Dogru T., Turk E. S.

International Journal of Tourism Research, vol.20, no.1, pp.38-49, 2018 (SSCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 20 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/jtr.2151
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Tourism Research
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.38-49
  • Keywords: economic growth, granger causality, renewable energy consumption, the top 7 most visited countries, tourism development
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: No


Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between tourism development, renewable energy consumption, and economic growth in the United States, France, Spain, China, Italy, Turkey, and Germany using an innovative bootstrap panel Granger causality model. The results show that tourism development and economic growth are interdependent in Germany; whereas tourism development induces economic growth in China and Turkey, the reverse is true in Spain. Causal relationships between renewable energy and economic growth give credence to theories of renewable energy-led growth in Spain and growth-led renewable energy in China, Turkey, and Germany. Whereas the Italian and U.S. models demonstrate a bidirectional relationship, the Spanish, Italian, Turkish, and U.S. data show a causal link stemming from tourism development. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed within the realm of macroeconomics and sustainability.