JOURNAL OF OROFACIAL ORTHOPEDICS-FORTSCHRITTE DER KIEFERORTHOPADIE, vol.83, no.SUPPL 1, pp.85-95, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
Purpose The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of systemic administration of Salvia officinalis Linnaeus (L.) leaf extract on new bone formation in the expanded premaxillary suture in rats in vivo and to examine the antioxidant effects and phenolic profile of Salvia officinalis (SO) leaf and root extracts in vitro. Methods Fourteen male Sprague Dawley rats were allocated to two groups: SO group (n = 7) and control group (n = 7). An open-loop spring was attached to the upper incisors of each rat to expand the premaxillae. A 5-day expansion period followed by a 12-day retention period was observed. The rats in the SO group received systemic administration of 20 mg SO/kg/day via the orogastric route for 17 days. Histomorphometric examinations were carried out to examine the amount of new bone formation, number of capillaries, and intensity of inflammatory cell response. Immunohistochemical analysis was conducted to examine the number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Leaf and root extracts of SO were also analyzed for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in vitro. Results Statistical analysis showed that the following were higher in the SO group than in the control group: new bone formation, number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, intensity of inflammatory cell response (neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages), and number of capillaries. The major compound identified in SO leaf extract was rosmarinic acid, while luteolin derivatives, salvianolic acid F, and medioresinol were also present. Conclusions Salvia officinalis L. from leaf extract provided antioxidant effects and stimulated enhanced new bone formation in the expanded midpalatal suture after maxillary expansion in rats.