SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol.473, pp.537-548, 2014 (SCI-Expanded)
Personal exposures of 65 primary school children to benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes (BTEX), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O-3) were measured during 24 h by using organic vapor monitors and tailor-made passive samplers. Two schools were selected to represent students living in more polluted (urban) and less polluted. (sub-urban) areas in the city of Eskisehir, Turkey. The pollutant concentrations were also measured in indoor and outdoor environments during the personal sampling to investigate the contribution of each micro-environment on measured personal concentrations. Socio-demographic and personal time-activity data were collected by means of questionnaires and half-hour-time resolution activity diaries. Personal exposure concentrations were found to be correlated with indoor home concentrations. Personal, indoor and outdoor concentrations of all studied pollutants except for ozone were found to be higher for the students living at the urban traffic site. Ozone, on the other hand, had higher concentrations at the sub-urban site for all three types of measurements (personal, indoor and outdoor). Analysis of the questionnaire data pointed out to environmental tobacco smoke, use of solvent based products, and petrol station nearby as factors that affect personal exposure concentrations. Cancer and non-cancer risks were estimated using the personal exposure concentrations. The mean cancer risk for the urban school children (1.7 x 10(-5)) was found to be higher than the sub-urban school children (0.88 x 10(-5)). Children living with smoking parents had higher risk levels (1.7 x 10(-5)) than children living with nonsmoking parents (1.08 x 10(-5)). Overall, the risk levels were <1 x 10(-4). All hazard quotient values for BTEX for the non-cancer health effects were <1 based on the calculations EPA's Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) part F. (C) 2013 Elsevier BM. All rights reserved.